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It is now known that the components of levator ani (the pelvic diaphragm), namely pubococcygeus, puborectalis and ileococcygeus, contract and relax as one muscle. Hence, pelvic floor exercises involve the entire levator ani rather than pubococcygeus alone. Pelvic floor exercises may be of benefit in cases of fecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse conditions e.g. rectal prolapse.[17]
^ Jump up to: a b c Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Richards J, Ward PB, Stubbs B (July 2016). "Exercise improves physical and psychological quality of life in people with depression: A meta-analysis including the evaluation of control group response". Psychiatry Res. 241: 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.054. PMID 27155287. Exercise has established efficacy as an antidepressant in people with depression. ... Exercise significantly improved physical and psychological domains and overall QoL. ... The lack of improvement among control groups reinforces the role of exercise as a treatment for depression with benefits to QoL.
Chinese exercise, particularly in the retired community, seems to be socially grounded. In the mornings, dances are held in public parks; these gatherings may include Latin dancing, ballroom dancing, tango, or even the jitterbug. Dancing in public allows people to interact with those with whom they would not normally interact, allowing for both health benefits and social benefits.[145]
Ask for help if you don't think you're doing Kegels properly. Your doctor can help you identify and isolate the correct muscles to perform the exercise. If you feel like you've been doing Kegels for a considerable amount of time, such as a few months, and have seen no results, then you should seek help from your doctor. Here's what your doctor can do for you:
^ Petersen RC, Lopez O, Armstrong MJ, Getchius T, Ganguli M, Gloss D, Gronseth GS, Marson D, Pringsheim T, Day GS, Sager M, Stevens J, Rae-Grant A (January 2018). "Practice guideline update summary: Mild cognitive impairment – Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology". Neurology. Special article. 90 (3): 126–135. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004826. PMC 5772157. PMID 29282327. Lay summary – Exercise may improve thinking ability and memory (27 December 2017). In patients with MCI, exercise training (6 months) is likely to improve cognitive measures and cognitive training may improve cognitive measures. ... Clinicians should recommend regular exercise (Level B). ... Recommendation
In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits.[90] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between sessions. One result of detrimental overtraining is suppressed immune function, with an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). An increased incidence of URTIs is also associated with high volume/intensity training, as well as with excessive exercise (EE), such as in a marathon.[91] Marathon training requires the runner to build their intensity week to week which makes them more susceptible to injury the more they increase their mileage. A study shows that in the last 10–15 years up to 90% of marathon runners have suffered a physical injury from their training.[92]
The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity. Dating back to 65 BCE, it was Marcus Cicero, Roman politician and lawyer, who stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor."[148] Exercise was also seen to be valued later in history during the Early Middle Ages as a means of survival by the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe.[149]
Researchers have evaluated the role of pelvic floor muscle therapy, Kegel exercises, in the management of erectile dysfunction and orgasm associated urinary incontinence (climacturia) after radical prostatectomy. One study demonstrated that men with erectile dysfunction and climacturia one year after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy had significantly improvement in erectile function with pelvic floor muscle training at 15 months and that the effect was maintained during follow-up. In addition, in those men performing pelvic floor muscle therapy, there was a significant improvement in climacturia.
Exercising looks different in every country, as do the motivations behind exercising.[3] In some countries, people exercise primarily indoors, and in others, people primarily exercise outdoors. People may exercise for personal enjoyment, health and well-being, social interactions, competition or training, etc. These differences could potentially be attributed to geographic location, social tendencies, or otherwise.

Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination.[4] Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench press. Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength.[4][6]
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